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Urgency of Land Reforms Shown by 71% of Nigerian Homeowners Having no Titles

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Most households – 71.4 percent who own the dwelling they reside in, do not have any documents/certificate of occupancy (C/O), according to the latest report by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS).

The report reveals that more than 42 percent of households in Nigeria reside in compound houses, 21.4 percent live in separate houses and 16.3 percent in apartments.

Survey findings by the NBS indicates that both in rural and urban areas the major share of households reside in compound housing, 35.3 and 47.5 percent in urban and rural areas respectively.

Details of the survey are below:

More than 54 percent of households own the dwelling in which they reside, while 25.8 percent rent the housing. The share of renters is 49.2 percent in urban areas, whereas in rural areas only 10.4 percent rent the dwelling. The largest share of households who rent is in Lagos – 68.3 percent and lowest is in Zamfara and Jigawa- 1.4 percent.

Most households – 71.4 percent who own the dwelling do not have any documents/certificate of occupancy; 13.2 percent have title deed and only 8.1 percent have certificate. The highest prevalence of ownership certificate is in Lagos – 22.9 percent.

About 60.7 percent of households reside in a housing with cement or concrete walls, that share is higher in urban areas, 86.4 percent and 43.8 percent in rural areas. However, 31.5 of households live in houses made of mud walls. In Zamfara state more than 81 percent dwell in houses with mud walls.

Roofing in 57.8 percent of households is made of corrugated iron sheets, followed by zinc sheet for 18.3 percent of households. Roofing made of thatch is observed in 13 percent of households among rural residents.

Two room dwellings are occupied by 31.9 percent of households; in one-roomed housing reside close to 24.5 percent of households.

In 70.3 percent of household the flooring material is made of cement or concrete. However, mud and straw/sand flooring reported among 14.1 and 5.6 percent of households respectively.

Almost all households cook at home. More than 51 percent use 3-stone/open fire cookstove for cooking food. LPG/ gas fueled cookstoves are being used by 17.1 percent of households; in urban areas that number is 35.5 percent while in rural areas only 5.1 percent utilize gas-based cookstoves.

More than 63 percent of households have access to electricity from any source. Access varies by geographic location: in Taraba state only 19.2 percent of household report having electricity, while in Lagos 98.7 of household have electricity. Among those who indicated having electricity 82.2 percent reported national grid as a main source and about 16 percent have generator powered electricity.

However, those who connected to national grid, report having electricity only for 6.8 hours per day; those who use generator use it for 4.1 hours per day. In addition, those who have grid electricity say that they have experienced 10 blackouts in the past 7 days with average duration of 12 hours.

Almost a third – 32.1 percent of households use borehole/tube well as the primary source of drinking water (in the rainy season). Access to piped and public standpipe water is 3.3 and 4.2 percent respectively. More than 17 percent of households collect rainwater and 5.8 percent use water from the surface of the water body (e.g. river, stream etc.).

Most households in Nigeria need to fetch water and on average it takes 20.6 minutes during dry season and 18.7 minutes in rainy season to walk to and back from the water source.

Quarter of all households, 25.1 percent do not have any toilet facility; 14.9 percent use open pit; 21.1 percent have pit latrine with slab. The flushed toilet is available for 24.6 percent nationally and 44.4 percent in urban areas. In Lagos 64.7 percent of households have flushed toilet- the highest prevalence in the country.

About 7.2 percent of households treat water in some way. More than 1 percent boil water, 2.3 percent add bleach or chlorine to disinfect and 2.6 percent let the water settle.

Among the set of standard household appliances, the most prevalent item is regular mobile phone- 75.8 percent of households have it, while only 28.9 percent have a smartphone. TV set is available across 48.0 percent of households; that number is higher – 74.7 percent in urban areas, while in rural only 30.5 have access to TV.

Across the country 8.5 percent have auto, in urban areas that number is 13.9 percent versus 4.9 in rural areas. Motorbikes are owned by 24.9 percent of households. One in every five households own fridge; prevalence of fridge possession is highest at 20.4 percent in Edo state, while in Yobe state only 0.5 percent have fridges.

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