Restrictions are being placed on New Year festivities around the world as many countries struggle to curb new spikes in coronavirus cases.
Fireworks displays and other public gatherings have been cancelled from Sydney to New York.
Festivities are being particularly muted in Europe, amid fears over a new more contagious strain of the disease.
France has mobilised 100,000 police to break up New Year’s Eve parties and enforce a night-time curfew.
More than 1.8 million people have died with the virus across the world since the start of the pandemic a year ago. More than 81 million cases have been reported.
France has had two lockdowns and bars, restaurants and cultural attractions will remain shut into the new year.
In his New Year’s address, President Emmanuel Macron tried to address criticism of the slow pace of vaccination in France, vowing to avoid “unjustifiable delays”.
In England – where the new coronavirus strain is spreading fast and 20 million people in the worst-affected regions are forced to stay at home – UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson urged people to follow the rules.
“That means not meeting up with friends or family indoors, unless they’re in the same household or support bubble, and avoiding large gatherings of any kind,” he said on Wednesday.
Ireland moved to its highest level of restrictions on Thursday, banning all household visits, closing all non-essential retail and limiting travel to 5km (three miles).
Germany is currently under lockdown until 10 January. The government has banned the sale of fireworks and placed tight restrictions on the number of people who can gather in public.
In what was expected to be her last New Year’s Eve address as chancellor as she plans to step down in nine months, Angela Merkel took aim at conspiracy theorists.
Making a rare show of emotion, she said she could only imagine how cynical and cruel their dangerous lies must feel to those who had lost loved ones to the virus.
In Italy, a 22:00 curfew was imposed, and bars, restaurants and most shops are closed. Meanwhile Pope Francis is not leading New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day services in Rome after suffering a recurrence of chronic hip pain.
The Netherlands is also under a lockdown, which is set to last until 19 January. Its usual countdown will take place behind closed doors at a football stadium in Amsterdam.
Turkey has begun a four-day-long lockdown.
Officials have placed restrictions on festivities in many states and cities. In New York the illuminated Times Square Ball will be dropped during the traditional countdown to midnight, but the area will not be open to the public.